Senderos spent seven years on the books of Arsenal and was part of the sides that won the 2005 FA Cup and finished as runners up to Barcelona in the 2006 UEFA Champions League.
The former Switzerland defender represented a total of eleven clubs during a 17-year professional career, including spells at AC Milan, Rangers, Fulham, Aston Villa and Valencia.
Senderos last played for Swiss second division side Chiasso with his final game coming in a 3-3 draw with FC Aarau last Sunday.
The centre back took to social media on Monday to express his gratitude to all the clubs he represented before calling time on his career.
He wrote: "This past weekend, I played my last game as a professional footballer.
"As a kid, I used to dream wildly about getting the opportunity to play for and against the best and as I close this chapter of my career and life, I couldn't be more thankful for the blessings and opportunities I've had had over the years.
"To Servette FC for giving my education and start - to Arsenal, AC Milan, Everton, Fulham, Valencia, Aston Villa, Grasshoppers, Rangers, Houston Dynamo and Chiasso for believing in me - and to the Switzerland national team and the people of Switzerland for letting me lead and represent my country.
"To my friends and amazing family - THANK YOU a million times over.
"I look forward to the next chapter. Phillipe"
Senderos won 57 caps for Switzerland and played at the 2006, 2010 and 2014 FIFA World Cups.