The 35-year-old retired from football at the end of the 2021/2022 season after spending 18 years in West Ham's first team.
Noble made 550 appearances during his time with the Hammers, scoring 62 goals.
Noble said: “I’m really happy to be coming back and can’t wait to get started. I’d like to thank the Club for giving me the opportunity – it’s a great honour for me to take up this role at West Ham United.
“I’ve spent the last 24 years as a player here, first in the Academy and then in the first team, and obviously have a deep knowledge and understanding of the Club. Throughout my playing career, the one thing I strived for more than anything was constant improvement, on and off the pitch. That became even more important to me when I was named club captain in 2015, and the last seven years have given me such great experience and preparation for the next stage of my life and career.
“In particular, the last two years, as my playing days began to naturally wind down, gave me a fantastic opportunity to really spend some time educating myself and gaining greater knowledge and understanding of the work that goes on behind the scenes. This Club has made some fantastic strides forward in that period and I am really looking forward to coming back at such an exciting time.
“I see it as a position that I can grow and develop in both personally and professionally. There are always difficult decisions to be made in football, but along with my colleagues at the Club, I will continue to put the best interests of West Ham United first. The last two seasons have been a time of great progress, and I want to help us to continue moving forwards in the right direction. I believe in the ambition shown by the Board and I am excited about helping to build on the success that has been delivered so far.
“I feel that it is a great opportunity for me to make a real contribution and help the Club in a number of different ways, and I can promise everyone in the West Ham family that I will give it absolutely everything I have.”